每日一句(daily sente ):

700)When something is important enough, you do it even if the odds are not in your favor. Elon Musk

当某事足够重要,你就去做它,即使胜算不大。——埃隆·马斯克

健康妙方(Healthy alternative)(302)

头部疾病对症家用方剂

眼疾(12)

“打眼睛”的自我疗法

电焊工人在焊接作业时,会产生一种亮度很强的电弧光,人的眼睛是不能在无保护的情况下直视的,否则就可能被者强烈的电弧光刺伤,电焊工们大多把这种现象叫作“打眼睛”,医学上称这种现象为“电光性眼炎”,它一般在24小时后即可自动痊愈。一旦“打了眼睛”,当时没有什么感觉,可到了晚上两眼就好像进了千万粒沙子,痛的两眼直流泪,难受极了。一般的处理方法是用凉毛巾敷在两眼上,但这样只能解除三五分钟的痛苦,毛巾敷热一点儿眼睛就又会很痛,这样就只好不停地换敷湿凉毛巾。其实最好的方法是用一个塑料方便袋装上半斤多的凉水,将口袋扎好放在两眼上,疼痛马上就消失了。这个方法实在是一种简单而有效地解除“打眼睛”痛苦的好办法。希望这个方法能早日让更多的工友们知道。

Home prescription for head disease

Eye diseases (12)

Self-therapy for "hitting the eye.

Electric welding workers in welding operation, will produce a strong electric arc brightness, the eye is not in the case of unprotected look, otherwise it may be a strong electric arc stabbed, welders are mostly a phenomenon called "eyes", medical call this phenomenon "electro-optic ophthalmia", it can automatically recover after 24 hours. Once "hit the eye", at that time have no feeling, but at night two eyes seem to be into ten million grains of sand, the pain of the eyes straight tears, very uncomfortable. The general treatment method is to use cool towel to apply on two eyes, but this can only remove the pain for three to five minutes, hot towel put a little eye will be very painful, so have to keep changing the wet towel. In fact, the best way is to use a plastic convenient bag with more than half a jin of cold water, the pocket tied on the two eyes, the pain immediately disappeared. This method is really a simple and effective way to relieve the pain of "hitting the eye". Hope this method can let more workmates know soon.

(174)关于输液的3个常识,知道这些就能避免99%的风险

2018-01=06  胡欣大众健康杂志

Translate and edit:Andyfan

HEALTH56T

 启:

 ——肺部结节不可怕,有几类人要特别留意它

 ——关于输液的3个常识,知道这些就能避免99%的风险

 ——激素:吃还是不吃……

 要:

输液治疗已成为临床药物治疗中药的给要形式之一,利弊与公,提倡合理使用才能减少不良事件的法身,也不能因噎废食。只有遵循“能口服不肌注,能肌注不输液”的给药原则,正确认识输液、合理使用输液、加强临床输液管理,才能提高临床药物治疗水平,保障患者的用药安全。

正文:

关于输液的3个常识,知道这些就能避免99%的风险

目前,我国感冒输液是常有的事情,每到流感高发期,医院就出现不少主动向医生提出输液要求的患者,“吊瓶森林”一度成为我国一些医院的“风景线”。近年国家发改委调查数据显示,我国输液使用量高达104亿瓶,相当于人均每年消耗输液8瓶,远高于国际上人均2.5~3.5瓶的平均水平。

那么,感冒真的需要输液吗?输液的疗效是否优于其他给药方式?输液又存在哪些风险?如何避免或减少输液风险?

 感冒需要输液吗? 

输液治疗是将大量的无菌溶液或药物直接输入静脉的治疗方法,是临床治疗重病和抢救的重要措施。然而,绝不能不分疾病的轻重,盲目采用输液的治疗形式。

输液可补充患者的血容量、改善微循环、维持血压,可用于治疗大出血、休克、严重烧伤的病人;可纠正水、电解质失调,维持酸碱平衡,可用于治疗剧烈恶心、呕吐、严重腹泻的病人;可补充营养,供给能量,用于不能经口进食的病人、吞咽困难及胃肠吸收障碍的病人;可输入药物,用于治疗严重感染、水肿等病人。

但是感冒发烧多数是由于病毒感染引起的,一般是不需要输液治疗的,对于病毒感染目前还没有特效的药物,输入抗菌素不仅不能治疗感冒,可能带来许多严重的不良反应,如耳毒性、肾毒性、肝毒性、血液毒、神经毒、免疫毒、肺毒性、眼毒性、胃肠毒、生殖毒,甚至过敏性休克而引起死亡,同时还会导致细菌耐药的发生,真正需要使用时而无效,因此普通感冒,一般不必输液治疗,除非患者伴有其他严重的疾病。

 输液疗效更好吗? 

当口服或肌肉注射给药时,药物吸收相对较慢,起效自然也就慢;而输液可直接进入血液,可使药物快速到达病患部位并发挥作用,同时可避免肝脏对药物的“破坏”,使药物具有较高的“利用率”。

但是输液治疗也存在着严重弊端,输入体内的液体中都含有肉眼看不到的微粒,当这些微粒进入血液后会长时间的在体内“游走”,可随着血液“旅游”全身,堵塞毛细血管,甚至引起血栓。同时,起效快伴随的副作用发生也快,而且更严重。盲目输液治疗弊大于利,所以,世界卫生组织多次告诫“能口服的不注射”。

 如何降低输液风险? 

要想降低输液风险,确保患者用药安全,全方位的加强输液管理是必不可少的。

首先,要从源头上解决问题,确保药品质量是前提,药品生产厂家要严格控制药品生产过程;卫生机构要出台相关指南,为医务人员提供参考依据,预计今年5月份颁布的《中国输液安全专家共识》就是很好的材料,医疗机构可以此材料为依据对临床医生进行培训,让他们了解滥用输液的弊端;同时还可为患者进行科普教育。

其次,患者自身要提高安全意识,应到正规医院进行输液;过敏体质者要提前告知医务人员。

最重要的是医务人员要加强责任感和业务能力:医生应熟练掌握输液适应证和禁忌证,处方时做到“能口服的不肌注,能肌注的不输液”,降低输液率。

护士输液前应仔细检查输液器具,严格遵守操作规范进行配液、加药,药物一般应现配现用或尽快使用,同时要加大输液中巡查力度,特别是第一次输液时,严密观察过敏反应,同时控制好滴速并随时观察患者有无出现异常反应,一旦出现输液反应,应立即停止输液,快速进入救治程序。

输液治疗已成为临床药物治疗重要的给药形式之一,利弊与共,提倡合理使用才能减少不良事件的发生,也不能因噎废食。只有遵循“能口服不肌注,能肌注不输液”的给药原则,正确认识输液、合理使用输液、加强临床输液管理,才能提高临床药物治疗水平,保障患者的用药安全。

文:钟雪 胡欣

图源:网络

编辑:张士国

校对:闵青

(174) three common knowledge about transfusion, knowing that these can avoid 99% of the risk.

Last one——Pulmonary nodules are not terrible, and there are several types of people who should pay special attention to it

This article——With three common knowledge about infusion, you can avoid 99% of the risk

Next article——Hormone: to eat or not to eat...

Transfusion therapy has become one of the most important forms of medicine for clinical drug treatment. The advantages and disadvantages of the treatment can reduce the occurrence of adverse events and prevent the choking of food. Can only adhere to the "can not intramuscular injection of oral, intramuscular injection infusion" to the medicine principle, correct understanding of transfusion, the rational use of transfusion, in order to strengthen the management of clinical transfusion, to improve the level of clinical drug treatment, the patient's medication safety.

Translate and edit Andyfan

Pulmonary nodules are not terrible, and there are several types of people who should pay special attention to it

At present, the cold infusion is often the things, every flu season, the hospital will appear a lot of active request transfusion patients to doctors, "forest" infusion bag or bottle once became a "landscape" in some hospitals in our country. In recent years, the national development and reform commission's survey data shows that the amount of liquid infusion used in China is as high as 10.4 billion bottles, which is equivalent to 8 bottles per person per year, which is far higher than the average level of 2.5 to 3.5 bottles per person in the world.

So, do cold really need infusion? Is the efficacy of infusion superior to other administration methods? What are the risks of infusion? How to avoid or reduce infusion risk?

Do you need infusion for a cold?  

Transfusion therapy is an important measure to treat severe diseases and rescue by injecting a large number of sterile solutions or drugs directly into the vein. However, it is not possible to indiscriminate use of transfusion therapy in the light of the severity of the disease.

Infusion can supplement patients' blood volume, improve microcirculation and maintain blood pressure, which can be used to treat patients with hemorrhage, shock and severe burns. Can correct water, electrolyte imbalance, maintain acid and alkali balance, can be used to treat severe nausea, vomiting, severe diarrhea patients; It can be used to supplement nutrition and provide energy for patients who can not eat by mouth, dysphagia and patients with gastrointestinal absorption disorder; It can be used to treat patients with severe infection and edema.

But most fever are caused by virus infection, usually don't need transfusion treatment, there is no effects of drugs for virus infection, input antibiotics not only can't treat a cold, can bring a lot of serious adverse reactions, such as ototoxicity, renal toxicity, toxic liver toxicity, blood and nerve poison, the immune toxicity of poison, lung toxicity, eye and gastrointestinal toxicity, reproductive toxicity, and even anaphylactic shock caused by death, at the same time can also lead to the occurrence of bacterial drug resistance, really need to use from time to time is invalid, so the common cold, generally don't have to transfusion treatment, unless accompanied by other serious diseases.

Does infusion work better?  

When oral or intramuscular injection is administered, the drug absorption is relatively slow, and the effect is slow; The infusion can directly enter the blood, which can make the drug reach the patient's site quickly and play a role. Meanwhile, it can avoid the "destruction" of the liver to the drug, so that the drug has a higher "utilization rate".

But infusion treatment also there are serious drawbacks, enter the body in the liquid particles contain is invisible to the naked eye, when these particles enter the blood in the body for long periods after the "walk", blood can be "tourism" as the whole body, blocking blood capillary, even cause blood clots. At the same time, the side effects that are accompanied by immediate effect happen quickly and more seriously. Blind infusion treatment does more harm than good, so the world health organization has repeatedly warned that "it can be taken without an injection".

How to reduce the risk of infusion?  

In order to reduce the risk of transfusion, to ensure the safety of the patient's medication, it is essential to strengthen the infusion management in all directions.

First of all, to solve the problem from the source, to ensure the quality of drugs is the premise, the drug manufacturers should strictly control the drug production process; Health agencies should publish relevant guidelines, provide reference basis for the medical staff, is expected in May this year issued infusion security expert consensus of the People's Republic of China is a very good material, medical institutions can be this material as the basis for clinical doctors training, let them know the disadvantages of transfusion abuse; It can also be used to popularize education for patients.

Secondly, patients themselves should improve safety awareness, should go to the regular hospital for transfusion; People with allergies should inform the medical staff in advance.

The most important thing is that the medical staff to strengthen the sense of responsibility and ability of business: doctors should master transfusion indications and contraindications, prescription when do "can can not intramuscular injection of oral, intramuscular injection of infusion", reduce the rate of infusion.

Nurse transfusion should be carefully check before infusion apparatus, strictly abide by the operation norm for liquor, dosing, drugs generally should now match current or use as soon as possible, to increase the infusion of patrolling at the same time, especially the infusion for the first time, strict observation allergic reaction, at the same time control the drop speed and observe patients have abnormal reaction, once appear, transfusion reaction, should immediately stop the infusion, fast in the process of treatment.

Transfusion therapy has become one of the most important forms of medicine for clinical drug treatment. The advantages and disadvantages of the treatment can reduce the occurrence of adverse events and prevent the choking of food. Can only adhere to the "can not intramuscular injection of oral, intramuscular injection infusion" to the medicine principle, correct understanding of transfusion, the rational use of transfusion, in order to strengthen the management of clinical transfusion, to improve the level of clinical drug treatment, the patient's medication safety.

Wen: zhong xue hu xin.

Source: network

Editor: zhang shiguo.